2011 m. vasario 11 d., penktadienis

Linking Words

Linking words is also a very relevant theme for me because at university we have to write essays and it is impossible to write a good essay without linking words. Linking words help to make a text coherent, also they provide a possibility to join different ideas, clauses of contrast, cause, result and etc. My colleague and I prepared a test for the second gymnasium classes according to the material they have learnt about linking words. After the test we made a conclusion that it is one of the most difficult tasks for the students. To be sincere we found it very difficult to explain students the usage of certain linking words. A teacher can just provide examples, translate the linking words and do a lot of practice with students. However, it seems that it is not enough.. Even though sentences in the text were very similar to the sentences from the grammar books, form which students were learning about joining ideas, the marks showed that it is a difficulty for students. Our mentor said that the test was very easy and praised us for a good explanation and teaching style. Here you can see a test.
1. Group the linking words.

yet,   therefore,   consequently,   furthermore,   whereas,      though , what is more,    also,    owing to,    similarly,    since ,    however,
in spite of,   so,   moreover

 Expressing Contrast          
Joining Ideas
Cause/Reason And Result

2. Underline the correct word.
1. Driving to work can be convenient. On the other hand/Similarly, finding a place to park can be a problem.
2. Although/ Nevertheless, she had enough money for the dress, she didn`t buy it.
3. It was so/such cold that I couldn`t feel my fingers.
4.  Susan doesn`t listen; consequently/however, she makes mistakes.
5. Cities are noisy Also/In contrast, the countryside is quiet.
6. Being a doctor is very demanding. Furthermore/However, it a job in which there is no room for mistakes.
7.Tom is an animal rights activist. What is more/As well as, she is a vet.
8. Linda is selfish as well as/but immature.
9. Susan isn`t allowed to stay out late at night and neither/also is Paul.
10. Penguins can`t fly and chickens can`t, neither/either.
11.Fiona is tall, while/moreover her mother is short.
12. Since/Although she was good-looking, she became a model.
13.Even though/Besides, she didn`t feel good, she went to the party.
14. Besides/Despite the great danger, we decided to climb the mountain.
15. Also/In spite of the fact that she is disabled, she plays a lot of sports.
3.  Rewrite the sentences, using the word(s) in brackets.
1. The plane ticket was extremely expensive, so she borrowed the money from her parents. (the reason why)...........................................................................
……………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………...………..
2. Tom is smart. He is polite, too.(as well as)…………………..…………….
………………………………………………………………….…….……….
3. Tim has got a bicycle. He has got a motorcycle, too. (not only…but also)…………………………………………………………………..………
…………………………………………………………………………….……
4. Tom didn`t go to the lesson. Mark didn`t go, either. (neither….nor)
……………………………………………………………………….……..
5. George does not eat meat. Sally does not eat meat. (not….either)
…………………………………………………………………………..…..
4. Rewrite the sentences using both…and or neither…nor.
1.Diana doesn`t know how to ride a bicycle. Jean doesn`t know how to ride a bicycle, either………………………………………………………….….
……………………………………………………………..………..…….
2. Susan can ride a horse. Chris can ride a horse, too. ……..………..……
…………………………………………………………………….………..
3. Peter works for an international company. Stacy works for an international company, too………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………..…………………..
5. Complete the sentences with two to five words, including the word in bold.
1. The product didn`t sell well owing to its high price. (account) The product didn`t sell well …………………………………………………..its high price.
2.Having won first prize in the competition, Emma was very happy. (because)
Emma was very happy ……………… ………………first prize in the competition.

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